Part 1: Sharpening the Team Mind: Communication and Collective Intelligence
A. What are some of the possible biases and points of error that may arise in team communication systems? In addition to those cited in the opening of Chapter 6, what are some other examples of how team communication problems can lead to disaster?
B. Revisit communication failure examples in Exhibit 6-1. Identify the possible causes of communication or decision-making failure in each example, and, drawing on the information presented in the chapter, discuss measures that might have prevented problems from arising within each team’s communication system.
Part 2: Team Decision-Making: Pitfalls and Solutions
A. What are the key symptoms of groupthink? What problems and shortcomings can arise in the decision-making process as a result of groupthink?
B. Do you think that individuals or groups are better decision-makers? Justify your choice. In what situations would individuals be more effective decision-makers than groups, and in what situations would groups be better than individuals?
No grammar mistakes
Below are some references. and also I am including chapter 6 and chapter 7 in the word document.
Making The Team (5th Edition) by Thompson – Chapters 6 and 7.
Klein, C., Diaz Granados, D., Salas, E., Le, H., Burke, C. S., Lyons, R., & Goodwin, G. F. (2009). Does team building work? Small Group Research, 40(2). 181-222.
Gorman, J. C., Cooke, N. J., & Amazeen, P. G. (2010). Training adaptive teams. Human Factors, 52(2). 295-307.Chapter 6 Sharpening the Team Mind
Communication and Collective Intelligence
On June 9, 2012, Children’s Memorial Hospital of Chicago moved 126 patients, many of whom were critically ill, 3 ½ miles from their location in Lincoln Park to the newly constructed Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital in Chicago’s Loop. The move had been carefully planned for over 3 years. Each patient was taken by private ambulance with their own medical team and each with its own police escort. Police closed routes to traffic along the chosen route, and a team of officers and traffic aides set up posts along the route to direct traffic. A dozen ambulances at a time drove between the two hospitals. On moving day, the hospital ran two full-service hospitals with two inpatient wards, two pharmacies, and two emergency departments. After 14 hours of moving patients, the old Children’s Memorial Hospital officially closed its doors. Even though moving day was stressful for both patients and staff, the 3 years of careful, painstaking preparations were the key to the successful operation.1
1 Frost, P. (2012, May 30). Patients, prep work crucial in move of Children’s Hospital. The Chicago Tribune. articles.chicagotribune.com; Haggerty, R. (2012, June 9). Children’s Memorial Hospital officially closes after all patients in new facility. The Chicago Tribune. articles.chicagotribune.com.
Moving 126 patients from hospital to hospital in 1 day took 3 years of planning and lots of rehearsal. There were multiple points of failure that were all thoughtfully avoided. As teamwork grows more specialized, teams and their leaders must deal with overcoming communication obstacles and integrating knowledge. The question of how to collect and assimilate data, analyze it and transform it into knowledge, and collaborate with other teams and groups is often left to intuition rather than science.
This chapter examines how team members communicate and develop team intelligence. We discuss communication within teams, the problems that can occur, and how to effectively treat them. We describe the information-dependence problem—the fact that team members depend on one another for critical information. After this, we build a model of team-level collective intelligence. Mental models are causal structures that influence how teams solve problems. We explore the team mind in depth and the nature of transactive memory systems (TMS), which are the ways in which teams encode, store, and retrieve critical information necessary for doing their work. Next, we undertake a case analysis of the effects of different types of training on TMS. Finally, we make some recommendations for team development and review some evidence pointing to the effects of group longevity, particularly in creative teams.
Communication among team members is subject to biases that afflict even the most rational of human beings with the best of intentions (see Exhibit 6-1).
In a perfect communication system, a seChapter 7 Team Decision Making
Pitfalls and Solutions
In the years leading up to JPMorgan Chase’s $2B trading loss, risk managers and senior investment bankers raised concerns that the bank was making increasingly large investments involving complex trades. However, concerns about the dangers were ignored and dismissed. CEO Jamie Dimon approved the risky trades, and this contributed to an atmosphere of disregard. Even though Dimon was renowned for his ability to sense risk, he failed to heed the alarm bells that sounded in April 2012. Instead, Dimon was convinced by Ina Drew, who led the investment office, that the turbulence was manageable. Unfortunately, no one questioned Drew’s conclusion, and, moreover, the operating committee was not even told the scope of the problem until days before Dimon went public with the news. The losses on the botched credit bet climbed to more than $9B. Questions were immediately raised about traders’ intent to defraud. Ina Drew resigned and volunteered to give back the $14M she made in the previous year.1
1 Silver-Greenberg, J., & Schwark, N. D. (2012, May 14). Red flags said to go unheeded by bosses at JPMorgan. The New York Times. dealbook.nytimes.com; Silver-Greenberg, J. (2012, July 13). New fraud inquiry as JPMorgan’s loss mounts. The New York Times. dealbook.nytimes.com.
The debacle at JPMorgan Chase was particularly stunning because it came on the heels of a series of other trading scandals that tainted the reputation of the financial houses and business in general. Whenever teams make decisions, they rely on information and judgment. Sometimes the information is insufficient and sometimes it is erroneous. When the consequences of decision making are disastrous, we try to find the root of the problem, which may be due to a faulty process or erroneous “facts.” As we will see in this chapter, teams can follow a vigilant process and still reach bad decisions; in some cases, teams that seem to do all the wrong things still manage to succeed.
Decision Making in Teams
Decision making is an integrated sequence of activities that includes gathering, interpreting, and exchanging information; creating and identifying alternative courses of action; choosing among alternatives by integrating differing perspectives and opinions of team members; and implementing a choice and monitoring its consequences.2 For a schematic diagram of an idealized set of activities involved in a decision-making process, see Exhibit 7-1.
2 Guzzo, R. A., Salas, E., & Associates. (1995). Team effectiveness and decision making in organizations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
We begin by discussing how a variety of well-documented decision-making biases affect individual decision making and how these biases are ameliorated or exacerbated in groups. We identify five decision-making pitfalls that teams often encounter. For each, we provide preventive measures. We focus on groupthink, the tendency to conform to the consensus viewpoint in group d
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