Hello i need a Briefly, Good and Positive Comment for this Post.Thank you.  I need at least two references.Week 7 Parent Guide: Developmental Coordination Disorder

Diana Pieterson, Alina Alvarez, Rufina Ewane, Chinyere Nzekwe, Ruby Odamtten
Walden University
NRNP 6660/ PMHNP Role I: Child and Adolescent
Dr. Vardah Seraphin
October 18, 2020

What is DCD?

Developmental Coordination Disorder, DCD, is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which a child’s fine or gross motor coordination is slow, less accurate, and more variable than in peers of the same age. These children are developing well intellectually but do not develop normal motor coordination.
DCD is first recognized when a child fails to reach normal developmental milestones like walking and dressing themselves.

Prevalence

· The prevalence of DCD ranges from 5% to 15% in the primary school population
· At a minimum, 5% to 6% of all children are affected
· Most studies of children with DCD report a higher prevalence in boys than girls. Still, the actual sex ratio is hugely variable and depends on the method used to identify children.
· The American Psychiatric Association reports a male to female prevalence ratio of 2:1.

Pathophysiology

Causes are multifactorial.
· Neurochemical abnormalities and parietal lobe lesions have been suggested to contribute to coordination deficits
· Environmental and developmental factors: DCD is more common following prenatal exposure to alcohol, cocaine, nicotine, and preterm and low-birth-weight children and
· children with obstetric difficulties during pregnancy (perinatal malnutrition, hypoxia) and born prematurely (rated at 50%).

What difficulties do children with DCD experience?

· Delay in achieving motor milestones like sitting, crawling, or walking
· Clumsiness like dropping and bumping into objects
· Slowness and difficulty with motor skills, including when catching a ball, writing, using scissors, or riding a bike
· Unsteady walk, tripping over feet.
· Delays in sitting up, crawling, and walking
· Problems with sucking and swallowing during the first year of life
· Difficulty getting dressed, playing games, and eating

Pre/Lower Primary School

· Difficulty coloring or drawing in a coordinated way
· Difficulty holding a pencil
· Letters are poorly formed.
· Handwriting shows poor spacing and sizing of letters and words.
· Letter forms are frequently confused
· Difficulty completing puzzles or building with blocks
· Difficulty buttoning clothes, doing up zippers, and tying shoelaces
· Difficulty using rulers and scissors accurately and efficiently
· Delays in throwing and catching, hitting and/or kicking a ball
· Difficulty negotiating playground equipment
· Poor organizational skills
· Difficulties in planning and prioritizing tasks
· Reduced general activity levels
· Reduced participation in sport

Mid/Upper Primary School

· Handwriting is immature and slow
· Slow and inaccurate in building models
· Difficulty playing ball games (especially in teams)
· Difficulty organizing belongings when motor sequencing and coordinat




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